Definitions for Continuum of Care Matrix for Alaskans with behavioral health disorders (mental illness, alcoholism, drug addictions)
Community Prevention/Education – Community interventions and education that ward off the initial onset or risk of a substance use or mental disorder or emotional or behavioral problem, including prevention of co-occurring substance use and mental health disorder. Community prevention/education examples include peer/consumer and client support services; community education; advocacy/self-help; and prevention.
Outreach – Facilitate entry into treatment or meeting the individual within their community, job, home or school setting to engage in treatment or support services for either a substance use or mental disorder or for those individuals experiencing co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. (Agency Defined).
Emergency Services – are provided in a crisis situation during an acute episode of a substance use, mental, emotional or behavioral disorder. Emergency services are intended to reduce the symptoms of the disorder, prevent harm to the recipient or others; prevent further relapse or deterioration of the recipient’s condition; or to stabilize the recipient. Inpatient Medical Detox is also included in this section. This level of detoxification provides the highest level of monitoring. Placement criteria are defined by the presence of high risk factors for complicated withdrawal: high risk biomedical complications, psychiatric or behavioral complications.
Detoxification Services – Detoxification is a process involving multiple procedures for alleviating the short-term symptoms of withdrawal from drug dependence. The immediate goals of detoxification are 1) to provide a safe withdrawal from the drug(s) of dependence and enable the client to become drug free; 2) to provide withdrawal that is humane and protects the client’s dignity; and 3) prepares the client for ongoing treatment of alcohol or drug dependence.
Social Detox: This is a model of detoxification that requires no medication, and allows the client to withdraw from abused chemicals in a safe environment.
Outpatient Detox : The client is at minimal risk from severe withdrawal, which requires moderate levels of medication and monitoring.
Medical Detox: This level of detoxification provides the highest level of monitoring. Placement criteria are defined by the presence of high risk factors for complicated withdrawal: high risk biomedical complications, psychiatric or behavioral complications.
Assessment – A face-to-face, computer assisted, or telephone interview with the person served to collect information related to his or her history and needs, preferences, strengths, and abilities in order to determine the diagnosis, appropriate services, and /or referral for services to address substance use and or mental disorders. The type of assessment is determined by the level of entry into services and the qualified staff delivering the service: Intake Assessment, Drug/Alcohol Assessment, Psychiatric Assessment, Psychological Assessment, Neuro-Psychological Testing and Evaluation.
Outpatient (Clinic-Based) Services – Refers to a range of facility based behavioral health services that can include assessment, individual, family, and group therapy. These services are designed to treat substance use disorders, mental illness, behavioral maladaption, or other problems: to remove, modify, or retard existing symptoms, attenuate or reverse disturbed patterns of behavior and promote positive recovery, rehabilitation, and personality growth and development.
Note: Screening differs from assessment in the following ways:
Screening is a process for evaluating the possible presence of a particular problem; and,
Assessment is a process for defining the nature of that problem and developing specific treatment recommendations for addressing the problem.
Rehabilitation and Recovery Services – Refers to a range of services that are available to clients who meet criteria based on levels of functioning in multiple spheres. Services can include a functional assessment, case management, individual/family/group skill development, and recipient support services. A functional assessment assists the client in identifying areas of need in developing a treatment plan. Case management services assist the recipient in accessing and coordinating needed services, such as medical, substance use, psychiatric, and behavioral health care. Skill development services help the recipient develop or improve specific self-care skills, self-direction, communication and social interaction skills necessary for successful community adjustment and interaction with persons in the recipient’s home, school, work, or community environment. Recovery is a treatment philosophy that provides the framework of service delivery. A recovery model offers hope that the restoration of a meaningful life is possible and achievable.
Medical Services - Refers to a range of behavioral health services that are delivered by trained medical staff, and can include psychiatric assessment and pharmacological management, and medical co-morbidity.
Residential Services – Is a licensed 24 hour facility (not licensed as a hospital) which offers behavioral health services which include treatment for substance use disorders; settings range from structured facilities, resembling psychiatric hospitals or drug/alcohol treatment facilities, to those that function as group homes or halfway houses; therapeutic foster care and foster care, family teaching homes, crisis beds, therapeutic group homes, staff-secure crisis/respite group homes, residential case managements specialized drug/alcohol, evaluation/treatment and specialized vocational rehabilitation.
Inpatient Services – Inpatient hospitalization is the most restrictive type of care in the continuum of behavioral health services; it focuses on ameliorating the risk of danger to self or others in those circumstances in which dangerous behavior is associated with substance use or mental disorder. Services include facility-based crisis respite, community hospitals, Designated Evaluation and Treatment (DET) beds, and the Alaska Psychiatric Institute (API).
Definitions for Continuum of Care Matrix for Alaskans with Developmental Disabilities
I. Information and Referral is a service whereby individuals and families can learn about the generic and specialized types of services and supports available in Alaska. Assistance in acquiring and completing eligibility paperwork can be provided, and referrals can be made to agencies offering the types of services an individual or family is seeking. This service is provided by a variety of agencies, including Infant Learning and Early Intervention Programs, school districts, Head Start, Public Health Centers, the Department of Health & Social Services, and various non-profit agencies that provide services to individuals and families.
II. Direct Services described below are available to eligible individuals depending on availability of funding.
Case Management/Care Coordination assists persons in gaining access to needed medical, social, educational and other services regardless of the funding source for the services to which access is gained. Case management links persons with complex personal circumstances to appropriate services and insures coordination of those services. This service may include referral services, routine monitoring and support, and/or review and revision of the habilitation plan.
Respite provides relief to caregivers from the everyday stress of caring for an individual who experiences a disability. Respite care can be provided in a variety of settings. Providers are trained in first aid, CPR, behavior and physical management, and information specific to the recipient’s needs. Respite care cannot be used for regular childcare or adult day care except for short-term emergency situations.
Specialized Medical Equipment and Supplies are devices, controls or appliances that enable an individual to increase their ability to perform activities of daily living, or to perceive, control or communicate with the environment in which the individual lives. They are also supplies and equipment necessary for the proper functioning of the above medical equipment.
Environmental Modifications are physical adaptations to an individual’s home, which are necessary to ensure the health, welfare and safety of the recipient.
Day Habilitation services assist with acquisition, retention or improvement in self-help, socialization and adaptive skills, and may include pre-vocational training or subsistence activities. These services take place in a nonresidential setting, separate from the home in which the individual lives.
Supported Employment services are provided at a work site in which individuals without disabilities are employed. They include the adaptations, supervision and training needed by individual unlikely to obtain competitive employment at or above the minimum wage. Supported employment is for individuals who need intensive, ongoing support, supervision and training to perform in a work setting. Supported employment may include subsistence activities.
Vocational Rehabilitation services include job counseling, referral, on-the-job training, tests and tools to evaluate an individual’s talents, short-term job try-out, job search and placement services, interpreter, reading and tutoring services. In some cases additional services may be covered.
Transportation services enable an individual and necessary escort to gain access to home and community-based waiver services or other community services and resources. Transportation may be provided as part of a coordinated transportation system, with public buses, accessible, door-to-door vans and/or taxi service. In smaller communities this service may be provided through social service agencies.
Educational Services are provided to eligible children birth to 3 through the Infant Learning Program, from 3-5 through the school districts and/or Head Start and from 5-22 through the school districts.
Infant Learning Program services include developmental screening, evaluation, and information about the child’s strengths and needs, home visits to help the family or caregivers guide their children in learning new skills, physical, occupation or speech therapy, specialized equipment and resources, and assistance in getting other specialized services and care.
Preschool Special Education services are provided to children ages three through five in order to meet their individual needs identified either through the Infant Learning Program or designed by an interdisciplinary team working through an Alaskan school district. These services are developmentally appropriate and include needed physical, occupational and/or speech therapy, and needed adaptive equipment. Services are designed to prepare children for an inclusive kindergarten placement.
Special Educationand Related Services encompass the provision of a free and appropriate education to children aged 3-21 who experience a disability and require specialized instruction in the least restrictive environment. Certified special educators and aides provide a range of services including adaptive physical education, individualized help with all school subjects and classes. Public schools are charged with transitioning students to adult life beginning at age 16.The overall goal of special education is to prepare students for independent living and employment.
Chore Services include regular cleaning and heavy household chores within an individual’s residence, snow shoveling to provide safe access and egress, and other services necessary to maintain a clean, sanitary and safe environment in the individual’s residence.
Intensive Active Treatment are time-limited specific treatments or therapies to address a family problem or a personal, social, behavioral, mental, or substance abuse disorder in order to maintain or improve effective functioning of an individual. These are designed and provided by a professional or paraprofessional working under a professional.
Crisis Response isoffered as short-term assistance to people with developmental disabilities and their families. The purpose is to stabilize circumstances in order to keep the family unit intact, prevent an out-of-home placement, or to maximize an individual’s ability to function independently in a difficult situation by providing immediate but limited relief. Examples include ground and/or air transportation and lodging, emergency car repairs needed to maintain employment, and emergency utility expenses if there is an immediate health and safety issue.
Medical services include screening, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Specialist and sub-specialist care is available in a limited number of larger communities.
Dental services include preventive and restorative care.
Pharmaceutical services provide access to prescribed medications, nutritional supplements, and durable medical supplies and equipment.
Recreational services are frequently offered by parks and recreation programs. Therapeutic and inclusive recreation and the loan of adaptive recreational equipment are also available.
Legal advocacy services for people with disabilities are available. The state’s protection and advocacy program provides training in self-advocacy, disability rights, and special education, assists individuals and family members in advocating for their rights, provides legal representation when problems cannot be resolved by other means, and investigates complaints of abuse, neglect and denial of rights. Private attorneys may also provide representation for a fee.
III. Residential Services
In-home Support services are designed to help individuals overcome or cope with functional limitations.
Shared Care is an arrangement whereby an individual spends more than 50% of the time in the home of an unpaid primary caregiver, and the remainder of the time in an assisted living home.
Family Habilitation services are provided to individuals who live more than 50% of the time in an assisted living home or foster home, receiving care from a paid caregiver who is not a member of the individual’s family. This residential arrangement does not require the natural family to give up custody or parental rights. Families and the individual may help choose the Family Habilitation home.
Group Homes are provided to individuals 18 years of age or older who live in an assisted living home. Habilitation plans frequently include goals designed to develop relationships and skills that lead toward increased independence.
Supported Living services are provided to individuals 18 years of age or older in the recipient’s private residence by a caregiver who does not reside in that residence. Habilitation plans identify the various levels of training and supervision needed by adults moving into or living in settings that maximize their independence.
Definitions for Continuum of Care Matrix for Alaskans with Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias
Outreach, Education, Information and Referral:
This category of service provides for outreach, education, information and referral of issues related to ADRD for individuals and their caregivers. This is accomplished through the Senior Centers, the Aging and Disability Resource Centers (provided through regional independent living centers), State SeniorCare Office, and State Care Coordination and Education grants. State grant funds from The Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority (AMHTA), the U.S. Administration on Aging and State of Alaska general funds are used to fund projects offered through private non-profits, tribal and government entities.
Assessments are completed under the Medicaid Waiver Program, the Medicaid Personal Care Attendant Program, the Medicaid Long Term Care Program and grant funds from the MHTA and the State of Alaska. These assessments are used to access services and to assist in developing a plan of care for the individual. This service is provided by private non-profits, for profit, tribal and government entities.
This includes any medical treatment for individuals with ADRD by health care professionals or paraprofessionals: i.e., Community Health Aides (CHA’s), Certified Nursing Assistants, Registered Nurses (including Public Health Nurses), Physicians Assistants, Nurse Practitioners, and Physicians. Treatment is provided in patients’ homes, in health clinics, private provider offices, hospitals and nursing homes.
This service provides medications for both physical and mental health needs of seniors. The Medicaid Personal Care Assistance program provides medication management for those people who qualify with physical needs. State and federal funds are provided on a limited basis for this service through an Anchorage Senior Center and Mental Health Trust Authority funded grant in Southeast.
This service makes available an “expert” who is available to navigate the system of care a senior receives through the Waiver or other services. The Care Coordinator works with the senior and her Caregivers to establish a Plan of Care and helps assure that services are delivered adequately to their client. These services are provided by private non-profits, for profit, and tribal entities.
Personal Care Attendants:
Personal Care Services are designed to assist seniors in need of assistance with Activities of Daily Living (e.g. bathing, eating etc.) in their own homes. This service provided through Medicaid can be utilized in two distinct ways: Agency Based services allow for a certified provider to manage the hiring and supervision of a Personal Care Attendant for a senior while Consumer Directed PCA allows for that attendant to be hired and supervised by the senior or their legal representative receiving the services with minimal assistance from an agency.
Services under this category allow for housekeeping and other services in a senior’s own home. This program is both a Medicaid Waiver and grant program with funding from the state of Alaska and the U.S. Administration on Aging. Providers of all types offer these services.
Relief to a primary Caregiver in order to reduce caregiver stress is the primary purpose of this service. This service provided under the Medicaid Waiver, U.S. Administration on Aging - National Family Caregiver Program and state grant programs. Providers of all types offer these services.
Adult Day Services:
Adult day Programs offer facility based programs, which provide recreational, health and social opportunities for seniors who are frail or experience ADRD. These programs are funded through State of Alaska funds and the Medicaid Waiver programs.
Congregate and Home Delivered Meals:
These programs offer one third of the recommended daily allowances (RDA) for adults. Congregate meals are provided in senior centers and schools throughout the state. Home Delivered meals are provided for those seniors unable to easily leave their homes. These programs are provided by private non-profits, for profit, tribal and government entities through the Medicaid Waiver, U.S. Administration on Aging and State of Alaska funds.
Assisted Transportation services are those, which take a senior from their home to appointments and back with door-to-door assistance. Transportation services are provided through the U.S. Administration on Aging, State of Alaska grant funds and the Medicaid Waiver programs through private non-profits, for profit, tribal and government entities. These services include assisted and unassisted rides.
Refers to converting or adapting the environment to make tasks easier, reduce accidents, and support independent living for frail seniors and/or individuals with disabilities. Examples of home modification include:
- Lever door handles that operate easily with a push
- Handrails on both sides of staircase and outside steps
- Ramps for accessible entry and exit
- Walk-in shower
- Grab bars in the shower, by the toilet, and by the tub
- Hand-held, flexible shower head
- Lever-handed faucets that are easy to turn on and off
Specialized Medical Equipment and Supplies:
Specialized equipment and supplies include devices, controls, or appliances specified in the plan of care which enable clients to increase their ability to perform activities of daily living, or to perceive, control or communicate with their environment.
Family Caregiver Programs:
These programs offers a wide range of services for family caregivers of seniors with the focus solely on the caregiver’s needs. The U.S. Administration on Aging funds programs, which are designed to support Caregivers of seniors recognizing their unique role in the continuum of care. Grants are made to private non-profits to execute these programs.
Legal services for seniors consist primarily of guardianships and other minor legal problems. Through funding from the U.S. Administration on Aging and the State of Alaska, a provision of legal services is provided for seniors and their caregivers through Alaska Legal Services Corporation.
Assisted Living Homes:
Assisted Living homes provide 24-hour care to seniors in a non-institutional setting outside a senior’s home.Assisted Living homes are operated by private non-profits, for profit, and tribal entities using funds from the Medicaid Waiver Program and the State of Alaska grant funds. These homes provide twenty-four hour care for seniors and others in non-institutional settings often in or near the seniors community.
Located in six communities ( Sitka, Ketchikan, Juneau, Anchorage, Palmer and Fairbanks) the Alaska Pioneers’ Homes provide up to 600 beds of assisted living services for seniors in Alaska. Open to any senior over 65 years of age these homes are funded through the Medicaid Waiver and State of Alaska funds and operated by the Department of Health and Social Services. They have developed a specialty in serving those people who experience ADRD as well as other frail seniors. They have a Registered Nurse on site 24 hours a day and provide a centralized pharmacy, which includes a high level of medication oversight.
Skilled Nursing Facilities provide intensive services for those at the highest level of care. Funded through Medicaid they offer both short and long-term placements for senior who require significant nursing interventions each day. In many cases, through Medicare funding these facilities provide for rehabilitation services for senior returning to their homes from acute hospitalizations.