Disability History Exhibit
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The Rig-Veda, an ancient sacred poem of India, is said to be the first written
record of prosthesis.
An obscure document called the Therapeutic Papyrus of Thebes marks the first
recorded reference to mental retardation.
470 – 399 BC
The philosopher Socrates challenges Athenian citizens to consider what constitutes
a good quality of life.
Aristotle said those "born deaf become senseless and incapable of reason."
335 – 280 BC
The physician Herophilus founds one of the earliest medical schools in Alexandria.
He finds connections between brain defects and disability.
6 BC – 30 AD
The life of Jesus Christ.
130 – 200 AD
The Greek physician and scholar Galen recognizes the brain as the central
organ of the nervous system and the seat of intellect.
476 – 1000 A.D.
The Dark Ages: a time marked by indifference, neglect, and fear.
Datheus, archbishop of Milan, founds the first asylum for abandoned infants. "As
soon as the child is exposed at the door of the church, it will be received
in the hospital and confided to the care of those who will be paid to look
The physician Avicenna proposes treatments for meningitis and hydrocephalus
and defines levels of intellectual functioning.
St. Mary of Bethlehem (more well known as "Bedlam") begins to receive
mental patients in England.
Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576) is the first physician to recognize the ability
of the Deaf to reason.
Leonardo da Vinci, Italian artistic and scientific genius, studies anatomy
and the functions of the brain.
Paracelsus distinguishes between mental illness and mental retardation.
Bedlam is declared a hospital exclusively for the insane.
Felix Platter studies "mental alienation," a precursor to psychiatry
that includes both mental retardation and mental illness.
Poor Laws are enacted in Elizabethan England.
The first book on teaching sign language to Deaf people, containing a manual
alphabet, is published by Juan Pablo DeBonet.
1st Hospital in the American colonies for the treatment of people with mental
illness opens in Pennsylvania in a private home. The patients are moved to
the Pine Street Hospital in Philadelphia after it opens in 1756.
Franz Joseph Gall, a highly respected brain anatomist, identifies 39 distinct
areas of the brain associated with intellectual functions.
A system of marine hospitals is established to care for sailors who are sick
or have become disabled.
The first free school for the Deaf opens in Paris by Abbe Charles de L'Epee.
Samuel Heinicke establishes the first oral school for the deaf in the world
Thomas Braidwood opens the first school for the Deaf in England.
The Public Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds opens in Williamsburg,
VA. Its first patient is Zachariah Mallory of Hanover County, VA.
US Declaration of Independence.
Arnoldi, a German pastor, believes education of the deaf should begin as early
as four years.
Jean-Etienne Dominique Esquirol divides mental retardation into two levels:
idiocy and imbecility.
Valentine Hauy develops embossed print and claims that blind persons can be
Abba Silvestri opens the first School for the Deaf in Italy.
In Paris, Pinel Unshackles people with mental illnesses.
The US Bill of Rights is adopted.
The French Revolution recognizes the innate dignity and worth of all human
Maryland Hospital in Baltimore City is establishes as "a hospital for
the relief of indigent sick persons, and for the reception and care of lunatics."
A system of marine hospitals is established to care for sailors who are sick
or have become disabled.
"Victor, the Wild Child," is discovered in the woods of Averyron,
Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard publishes De l'Education d'un Homme Sauvage which
describes his efforts to educate Victor, the Wild Boy of Aveyron.
Rush's Medical Inquiries and Observations is the first modern attempt to explain
Louis Braille is born at Coupvray, near Paris. At three years of age an accident
deprives him of his sight, and in 1819 he is sent to the Paris Blind School
which was originated by Valentin Hauy.
Thomas H. Gallaudet departs for Europe to seek methods to teach the Deaf.
Laurent Clerc, a Deaf French man, returns to America with Thomas H. Gallaudet.
Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons,
the first permanent school for the deaf in America, opens in Hartford on April
American School for the Deaf adds vocational training to curriculum.
The Connecticut Retreat for the Insane (later named the Hartford Retreat and
now named the Institute for Living) admits its first patients.
Louis Braille learns of a military method of communicating at night through
the use of 12 raised dots on paper. In 1829 he simplifies the code to a 6-dot
system for use by the blind. Samuel Gridley Howe opens the New England Asylum
for the Blind (later named the Perkins School for the Blind) in Boston.
Panic of 1837 - Over 600 banks fail by the end of the year
The Ohio Lunatic Asylum in Columbus admits it's first patients from the Commercial
Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of Cincinnati.
Edward Seguin is appointed head teacher of a class of idiot children
at the Salpetriere in Paris, France. At this time he starts a private school
Dorothea Dix advocates to place persons with mental illness in hospitals for
A school for idiots opens in the Bicetre with Edward Seguin as a teacher.
P.T. Barnum opens the American Museum in New York and exhibits "Freaks."
Edward Seguin is fired from Bicetre, accused of "abominable" practices.
E. F. Backus in New York introduces the 1st legislation to provide for separate
treatment for the feeble-minded.
Thomas S. Kirkbride publishes On the Construction, Organization, and General
Arrangements of Hospitals for the Insane. Samuel Gridley Howe admits first
idiot pupil to his school in South Boston.
Dorothea Dix appeals to the 30th Congress for federal funding of state facilities
for persons with mental illness, mental retardation, and epilepsy. Hervey B.
Wilbur opens a private school for idiots in Barre, Massachusetts.
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet dies on September 10.
A school for "feebleminded youth" opens in Germantown, Pennsylvania.
A school for "feeble-minded youth" opens in Albany, New York.
A school for "feeble- Minded youth" opens in Columbus, Ohio.
Isaac Kerlin publishes The Mind Unveiled; or, A Brief History of Twenty-two
Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection,
or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
The Braille system is introduced to America and is taught with some success
at the St. Louis School for the Blind.
Facility for the feebleminded opens in Kentucky.
The American Civil War (1861 - 1865) brings 30,000 amputations in the Union
Panic of 1857 creates pressure for facilities to keep students in training
schools. Population at the Pennsylvania Training School is 175.
New York adopts the "Willard Plan" which includes separate facilities
for chronic cases in an attempt to reduce costs.
Edward Seguin publishes Idiocy. The same year, he publicly argues against
large institutions. Samuel Gridley Howe speaks against building large institutions
in keynote address in Batavia, New York. St. Peter State Hospital (later named
the St. Peter Regional Treatment Center) admits its first mental patients in
A National Home for disabled Union soldiers is established.
Horatio Alger publishes Ragged Dick, or Street Life in New York, suggesting
that any boy in America can rise to success if he is intelligent.
14th Amendment is passed, providing equal protection of laws and due process.
Francis Galton publishes Hereditary Genius. Facility for the feeble-minded
opens on Randall's Island in New York City.
1870 – 1952
Maria Montessori, influenced by Edward Seguin’s teaching methods, becomes
a pioneer in teaching children with and without disabilities.
Population at the Pennsylvania Training School reaches 185.
Alexander G. Bell opens speech school for teachers of Deaf students in Boston.
The Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and
Feeble-Minded Persons is founded. Edward Seguin is the first president.
The National Association of the Deaf is founded.
Institution in Syracuse, NY opens farms colonies.
Francis Galton, a cousin to Charles Darwin, coins the term "eugenics."
Women admitted to the National Deaf-Mute College (now Gallaudet).
Maryland opens the Asylum and Training School for the Feeble-Minded. late
1880s Pennsylvania adds a "girls" cottage for 80 women of childbearing
Laura Bridgman, worldfamous blind student of the Perkins School, dies at age
sixty of pneumonia.
Ellis Island opens.
National Deaf-Mute College becomes Gallaudet College
Charles Eliot Norton (Editor of the North American Review) advocates for the "painless
destruction" of insane and deficient minds.
Martin Barr discusses benefits of desexualization at the Association for Medical
Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feeble- Minded Persons.
Boston starts special education classes. Teachers are sent to Massachusetts
Institution for the Feeble-minded at Waltham and Elwyn Institute in Pennsylvania
Sigmund Freud Publishes The Interpretation of Dreams.
Philadelphia, PA starts special education classes.
U.S. Congress bars immigration of epileptics.
Martin Barr publishes Mental Defectives.
Rome State Custodial Asylum for Unteachable Idiots in New York opens a farm
colony (The Brush Colony). Research Department at the Training School at Vineland,
NJ is begun. Henry H. Goddard is hired to head the laboratory.
Indiana passes sterilization law.
Gunnar Dybwad, "Grandfather of the Self-Advocacy Movement," is born
in Germany. Clifford Beers, a young businessman who had a mental breakdown
and recovered, writes about it in A Mind That Found Itself.
New Jersey legislature authorizes statewide special education classes and
mandates eugenic sterilization for certain categories of adult feeble-minded.
Henry H. Goddard publishes The Kallikak Family. Davenport and Florence H. Danielson
publish The Hill
Wisconsin Legislature authorizes sterilization to stop the breeding of mental
Operating expenditures at the Rome State Custodial Asylum for Unteachable
Idiots for fiscal year equals $228,893 ($12.81 per inmate per month).
Terman revises the Binet test and introduces the term Intelligence Quotient
New York's sterilization law is found to be unconstitutional.
The American Foundation for the Blind (AFB), a non-profit organization recognized
as Helen Keller's cause in the United States, is founded.
Congress passes the Immigration Restriction Act.
Arthur H. Estabrook and Ivan E. McDougle publish Mongrel Virginians: The Win
Buck v. Bell – Supreme Court Case that permits sterilizations.
Harvey M. Watkin's questionnaire of 317 members of the American Association
on Mental Deficiency finds that 80% favor sterilizations
27 states have enacted sterilization laws.
any enacts the Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring,
permiting forced sterilizations for people with perceived genetic disabilities
such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, manic depression, deafness, congenital feeblemindedness,
Huntingtons' chorea, and blindness.
Third Reich begins sterilization of Germans.
The League for the Physically Handicapped forms to protest discrimination
by the Works Progress Administration (WPA).
The Children's Benevolent League organizes (later known as the Washington
Association for Retarded Children).
The March of Dimes begins treatment centers and fundraising for children and
adults with polio.
Dr. Foster Kennedy, head of the Euthanasia Society of America, urges legalizing
euthanasia for "born defectives who are doomed to remain defective." Hitler
commences Aktion T4 "mercy killing" program of the sick and disabled.
U.S. Congress declares war with Japan and enters into World War II.
The population of Rome State School reaches 3,940, with 1,000 living in colonies.
World War II ends. Nazis had murdered 18-26 million people in death camps.
Two thousand paraplegic soldiers survive the Second World War, compared with
only 400 from World War I.
rents discuss forming a national advocacy organization during an AAMD conference
in St. Paul, MN.
The General Assembly of the United Nations adopts the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights. The United Cerebral Palsy Association is founded.
The National Association for Retarded Children is formed. The Muscular Dystrophy
Association is founded.
Ed Roberts, "father of the Independent Living movement," contracts
Ed Roberts enrolls at the University of California, Berkeley.
Robert F. Kennedy attacks the Rome and Willowbrook State Schools in New York
for appalling conditions. Civil Rights marches in Selma, Alabama. The Voting
Rights Bill becomes law, nullifying local laws and practices that prevent minorities
from voting. Malcolm X is assassinated on February 21.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas court ruling that "separate
but equal" segregated schools violate the 14th amendment to the Constitution.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is founded to coordinate localized
southern efforts to fight for civil rights.
The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is formed in Raleigh,
NC by a group of Shaw University students. The Greensboro Sit-Ins begin in
February, protesting segregated seating in a Woolworth’s diner. In two
months the sit-in movement spreads to 54 cities in 9 states. Thurgood Marshall,
national counsel for the NAACP, warns against accepting "token integration."
The march on Washington is the largest civil rights demonstration to date.
Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers a speech entitled "I Have a Dream."
National Theatre of the Deaf is founded.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated on April 4.
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children sues their state over poor
Ed Roberts and his peers at Cowell (UC Berkeley Health Center) form a group
called the Rolling Quads. The Rolling Quads form the Disabled Students' Program
on the U.C. Berkeley campus. Wyatt vs. Stickney court case in Alabama paves
the way for deinstitutionalization across the country.
The United Nations adopts the Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
rules that exclusionary provisions in Pennsylvania's compulsory school attendance
laws are unconstitutional. Geraldo Rivera's TV report on the Willowbrook State
School and Letchworth Village is aired to millions of viewers.
The New York State Association for Retarded Citizens brings a class action
suit against the state of New York, alleging severe violations at the Willowbrook
State School and Hospital. Section 504 (Public Law 92-603) is added to the
Rehabilitation Act, forbidding employment discrimination against people with
developmental disabilities in federally funded programs.
The Center for Independent Living opens in Berkeley, California. England holds
a national conference sponsored by the Spastics Society and organized by the
Campaign for the Mentally Handica
Canada holds its first self-advocacy conference.
Disabled Women's Coalition founded at UC Berkeley by Susan Sygall and Deborah
Kaplan. Self-advocates in Oregon and Washington State organize the first U.S.
self-advocacy conference. Wyatt v. Aderholt Federal Court rules that Alabama's
eugenic sterilization law is unconstitutional.
The United Nations adopts a Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons.
Activists take over the San Francisco offices of the US Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare to protest Secretary Joseph Califano's refusal to sign
meaningful regulations for Section 504. The action became the longest sit-in
of a federal building to date. The historic demonstrations were successful
and the 504 regulations were finally signed.
The federal government agrees to fund Independent Living Centers.
Self-advocates in Minneapolis picket their sheltered workshop for a union
Sears, Roebuck and Co. begins selling decoders for closed captioning for television.
Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act ensures that all
polling places must be accessible.
Group homes become common in communities, providing a "least restrictive
environment" for individuals with developmental disabilities.
19 states still have laws permitting the sterilization of persons with mental
retardation. Mental Illness Bill of Rights Act expands coverage of Protection
and Advocacy to cover mental illness.
The Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund (DREDF) is founded in Berkeley,
George Murray becomes the first wheelchair athlete to be featured on the Wheaties
The National Association of Psychiatric Survivors is founded.
Toward Independence is published by the National Council of the Handicapped
(now National Council on Disability), recommending creation of the Americans
with Disabilities Act.
The last residents move out of the Pennhurst Institution in Pennsylvania.
Across the country people are leaving institutions and moving into their communities.
Marlee Matlin wins an Oscar for her performance in Children of a Lesser God.
The AXIS Dance Troupe is founded in Oakland, California.
"Deaf President Now" protest at Gallaudet University in Washington,
DC. Dr. I. King Jordan, the first Deaf university president, is named.
ADAPT demonstrators take on inaccessible Greyhound buses.
Opening of a memorial museum for the victims of "euthanasia" and "Special
Treatment" at a psychiatric hospital in Bernburg, Germany.
Mouth: The Voice of Disability Rights begins publication in Rochester, New
ADAPT "Wheels of Justice" action in Washington DC.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is signed by President Bush.
The Secretary of Transportation, Sam Skinner, finally issues regulations mandating
lifts on buses.
Self-Advocates Becoming Empowered is formed during meeting in Estes Park,
Wheels of Justice action by ADAPT in Washington, DC.
The Autism National Committee is founded.
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act is amended and renamed the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Jerry's Orphans stages its first annual picket of the Jerry Lewis Muscular
Dystrophy Association Telethon.
Federal "Home of your own" initiative begins. After seven years,
Sharon Kowalski, a Woman disabled from an accident, is finally able to leave
the "protective custody" of a nursing home and live at home with
her partner Karen.
Wade Blank, one of the founders of ADAPT, dies trying to save his son from
The Remembering with Dignity project begins in St. Paul, Minnesota, with the
goal of placing names on the numbered graves in Minnesota’s institutions
and getting an apology from the state for years of abuse, neglect, and abandonment.
Death of Roland Johnson, a nationally recognized advocate for all people with
The First International Symposium on Issues of Women with Disabilities is
held in Beijing, China in conjunction with the Fourth World Conference on Women.
Sandra Jensen, a member of People First, is denied a heart-lung transplant
by the Stanford University School of Medicine because she has Down syndrome.
After pressure from disability rights activists, administrators there reverse
their decision, and, in January 1996, Jensen becomes the first person with
Down syndrome to receive a heart-lung transplant.
Not Dead Yet is formed by disabled advocates to oppose Jack Kevorkian and
the proponents of assisted suicide for people with disabilities.
Sen. Robert Dole becomes the first person with a visible disability since
Franklin Roosevelt to run for president of the United States. Unlike Roosevelt,
he publicly acknowledges the extent of his disability.
Rodonna Freeman, selfadvocate in Minnesota, purchases a home of her own.
The Remembering with Dignity project secures the release of names of people
buried anonymously in the Faribault Regional Treatment Center and begins to
mark the gravesites with proper headstones. The state of Minnesota refuses
Fourth International People First Conference held in Anchorage, Alaska.
The Supreme Court upholds "Most Integrated Setting" requirement
in the Olmstead case.
Death of Irving Martin, a national self-advocacy leader from Minnesota.
10th anniversary of the ADA.
Fewer than 50,000 people living in public institutions