Reporting Child Abuse & Neglect in Alaska
The Indicators listed below do not necessarily mean child abuse or neglect
is going on in a family. If you have cause to suspect abuse or neglect,
however, a sensitivity to these indicators can provide useful information.
Included on this page is a list of those who are required by law to report known or suspected child
abuse and neglect. Others in the general public are also encouraged to
report such knowledge or suspicions so that children can be protected and
families can receive help.
We are all responsible
for the welfare of the children in our communities. You are encouraged
to report instances of known and suspected child abuse and neglect.
In response to the crucial need
for intervention in child abuse and neglect cases, Alaska, like all other
states, requires by law* that certain groups of people formally report confirmed
and suspected child abuse and neglect. Groups who must report include
individuals who are most likely to be in contact with children under the
age of 18, and who, therefore, are most likely to see and hear important
clues about instances of abuse and neglect.
Who are mandated reporters?
The following persons who, in
the performance of their professional duties, have reasonable cause
to suspect** that a child has suffered harm as a result of abuse
or neglect, must immediately (as soon as reasonably possible-no
later than 24 hours) report that information to the nearest office of the
state’s Department of Health & Social Services, Office of Children’s
- Practitioners of the healing arts, including
chiropractors, mental health counselors, social workers, dentists, dental
hygienists, health aides, nurses, nurse practitioners, certified nurse
aides, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants, optometrists,
osteopaths, naturopaths, physical therapists, physical therapy assistants,
physicians, physician assistants, psychiatrists, psychologists, psychological
associates, audiologists, speech-language pathologists, hearing aid dealers,
marital and family therapists, religious healing practitioners, acupuncturists,
- Administrative officers of institutions,
including public and private hospitals or other facilities for medical
diagnosis, treatment or care;
- Paid employees of domestic violence and
sexual assault prevention programs, and crisis intervention and prevention
- Paid employees of an organization that provides
counseling or treatment to individuals seeking to control their use of
drugs or alcohol;
- School teachers and school administrative
staff members (public and private schools);
- Peace officers and officers of the state
Department of Corrections;
- Child care providers, including foster parents,
day care providers and paid staff.
The law encourages the persons
named above to also report cases that come to their attention in their
nonprofessional capacities. Further, the law encourages any person
to report instances of known or suspected abuse and neglect.
What are child abuse & neglect?
STATE LAW DEFINES child abuse
or neglect to include the following actions by those responsible for a
- Physical injury that harms or threatens a child’s health or welfare;
- Failure to care for a child, including neglect of the necessary physical (food,
shelter, clothing, and medical attention), emotional, mental and social
- Sexual abuse, including molestation or incest;
- Sexual exploitation, including permitting or encouraging prostitution;
- Mental injury--An injury to the emotional well-being, or intellectual
or psychological capacity of a child, as evidenced by an observable and
substantial impairment in the child’s ability to function in a developmentally
appropriate manner; or
- Maltreatment--A child has suffered substantial harm as a result
of child abuse or neglect due to an act or omission not necessarily committed
by the child’s parent, custodian or guardian.
Who are the abused children?
ESTIMATES INDICATE that over
two million children are abused or neglected each year in this country
alone. In 1989, at least 1,200 and perhaps as many as 5,000 children died
as a result of child abuse or neglect, and over 160,000 were seriously
harmed. Professionals estimated that one out of every four
girls and one out of ten boys will be sexually abused before they reach
Any child can be the victim of abuse or
- Children of all ages, from infancy through
the late teens;
- Children from families of all income levels;
- Children of all cultural and social backgrounds.
Who are the abusers?
- ANYONE can be a child abuser:
- People in all walks of life;
- People in all income brackets;
- People of all cultural and social backgrounds.
CONTRARY to what people may
think, a person who abuses a child is usually not someone with a severe
psychiatric disorder. They may have emotional problems which increase
their potential to abuse, but usually, they are indistinguishable from
anyone else. In fact, in many instances, a person who abuses is a normal
person whose stress levels have reached a crisis point.
Parents Anonymous, Inc., the
self-help organization for abusing parents, has identified a number of
characteristics of parents who may be at “high risk” to abuse. These indicators,
especially when coupled with clues from a child’s comments, behavior and/or
appearance, can be very useful. Some of these indicators are:
- Parents who do not seem sensitive to their
child’s basic needs for food, shelter or clothing;
- Parents who seem indifferent to, deny, are
unaware of or seem annoyed by injury, illness or developmental delays in
- Parents who seem preoccupied with the fear
that their children will grow up to be delinquents unless they are severely
punished in childhood;
- Parents who tell you how “nervous” their
child makes them;
- Parents who scapegoat one child as being
different or bad;
- Parents whose anger about their child’s
behavior seems to be out of proportion to the situation;
- Parents who are socially isolated and have
little time away from their children;
- Parents whose expectations of their children
or of themselves as parents are unrealistic;
- Parents who express fear that they may harm
- Parents who are uncomfortable relating to
their child in your presence;
- Parents whose self-esteem seems to be very
There are some other family indicators
that, if coupled with children’s indicators, could signal sexual abuse
or exploitation. Among those indicators are:
- Previous occurrence of child sexual abuse
in the family;
- Other violence in the home;
- Excessive interest in daughter’s activities
with boyfriends and other peer relationships;
- Rigid role structure in family (paternal
dominance/abused, passive mother);
- Marked role reversal between parent and
- Unusual amount of or inappropriate physical
contacts between family members;
- Complaints about a seductive child.
Children's indicators of abuse or neglect
THE FOLLOWING are excerpts from
a more detailed list of indicators compiled by the government of British
Columbia, the Ministry of Education, Science & Technology.
Children who are frequently late or absent. The
child may be neglected; parents may be having trouble coping; or the child
may be expected to take on parental duties and may not be allowed to attend
school on some days.
Children who come to school early or who
are reluctant to go home in the afternoon. May suggest a lack of caring
at home; no one at home; fear of going home.
A child who is inadequately dressed for
the weather may be neglected.
Children with welts, bruises and other physical
injuries should be seen by a doctor or nurse, and the incident reported
immediately if there is cause to suspect nonaccidental injury.
Children who are hyperactive, destructive,
and aggressive may be reflecting the violence at home. Children who act
up may be asking for help.
Children who are withdrawn, passive, overly
compliant can be emotionally damaged. Many abused children feel very little
emotion, having withdrawn to their own world.
A child who has obvious medical needs that
are unattended may well be physically neglected.
Children who are undernourished and who
go without breakfast and/or lunch can be suffering from neglect unrelated
Children who are tired, lethargic, listless
may be suffering from neglect. Parents may not regulate their child’s
schedule, including sleep patterns.
There are some additional children’s indicators
that have often been identified with child sexual abuse. Those include:
Regression-- withdrawing into fantasy worlds,
wanting to be someone else;
Delinquency and aggression-- especially
sexually acting out and abuse to others;
Sexual promiscuity, prostitution and unusually
Poor peer relationships;
Sudden school problems;
Sudden eating and/or sleeping problems;
Excessive clinging and/or fear of going
home or fear of a particular person;
Unusual fears or phobias, especially of
being left alone and of men/boys;
Self-destructive behavior (drugs, alcohol,
Excessive or unusual rubbing of genitals
(their own or others’);
Familiarity with sexual terms and activity
beyond the child’s age and level of development;
Excessive and/or inappropriate physical
contact with other children or adults;
Confiding in someone, but not telling the
whole story (“We have a secret, but I can’t tell” or “What if I want to
tell you something but I can’t?”);
Running away --Every child who runs away
should be asked if they are being sexually abused.
What should I do if I know or suspect?
IF YOU ARE AWARE of or have a reasonable suspicion of the existence of abuse
or neglect, even if you are not a mandated reporter, you are urged to report
that information to the nearest office of the Department of Health & Social
Services, Office of Children’s Services. At the very least, talk to someone
you trust about the situation--a teacher, an elder, public health nurse,
health aide or staff of a domestic violence shelter, for example. It is
essential that you take some action to protect the child from further harm. A
child’s physical and emotional well-being, even that child’s life, can
be at stake.
It is not your responsibility to determine
whether your suspicions are correct, or to investigate those suspicions.*
If you cannot contact the nearest
office of the Office of Children‘s Services for any reason, and immediate
action is necessary for the well-being of the child, make your report to
a police agency. An officer will then take immediate action to protect
the child and, at the earliest opportunity, will notify the nearest office
of the Office of Children’s Services.
There may be times when you
wonder whether something constitutes abuse or neglect, or if your suspicions
are adequate to warrant reporting. Please feel free to contact the Office
of Children’s Services office nearest you (addresses and phone numbers
are in this brochure) to discuss those questions--anonymously if you prefer. Often
such a discussion can make your next move --to report or not --much clearer.
How does the system work and what is my role?
WHEN YOU REPORT, you can discuss
with an Office of Children’s Services social worker the advisability of
telling the parents that you have reported. In some cases, telling them
why you’ve reported may be helpful. As Parents Anonymous, Inc. points
out, ”as the reporting person, you are the first link in the chain of rehabilitation
for the family. How you relate to the family can be the conditioning factor
for how they perceive those who will follow in the helping process. Your
attitude can make the difference between a family that expects and accepts
help and one that is defensive and hostile. It helps to realize that abuse
may be a plea on the part of the parent for help.”
There may be times, however,
when you do not want the parents to know that you’ve reported. In such
a case, let the agency to whom you report know that your name is not to
be given to the parent in question. Or report anonymously. The important
thing is to report. The Office of Children’s Services may be unable to
take appropriate action without your help, and you may be asked later if
you are willing to relinquish anonymity.
The Office of Children’s Services
must, by law, investigate all reports of suspected child abuse or neglect. If
the agency finds that the report is unfounded and the family is not in
need of services, that will end the investigation. If, however, the social
worker believes that the child is in need of protective services (and that
the family is in need of services), a program of in-home support services
can be determined to help stop the abuse or neglect, including protective
day care, individual and family counseling, and homemaker support. If
the social worker determines that the child is in need of emergency protection,
the worker can immediately take custody of the child and remove the child
to a place of safety. That is a temporary placement. Foster placement
or permanent out-of-home placement and termination of parental rights can
be done only through court action.
It is important to keep in mind
that in most cases, such extreme actions are not required.
If you have reported abuse or
neglect and want to know if action has been taken on the case, you can
contact the Office of Children’s Services for verification. Depending
on your role with the family, the Office of Children’s Services may only
be able to give you very limited information. It is important to remember
that information you have learned about a family or individual in the course
of your duties relating to the reporting of known or suspected abuse is
confidential and you may not disclose it to other parties.
What is my legal liability?
ACCORDING TO STATE LAW, a person
who, in good faith, makes a report, permits an interview under 47.17.027,
or who participates in judicial proceedings related to reports submitted
is immune from any civil or criminal liability which might otherwise be
incurred or imposed.
A person required by law to
file a report of abuse or neglect who willfully or knowingly fails or refuses
to do so is guilty of a class B misdemeanor.
The Office of Children’s Services is committed to keeping
children safe and to keeping families together when that is possible...
IT IS OFTEN POSSIBLE to work with the family
to help them solve their problems. It isn’t easy, but people can change.
If you know about or have a
reasonable suspicion of child abuse or neglect, report it within 24 hours
to the nearest office of the Office of Children’s Services. Following
are addresses and phone numbers for offices of the Office of Children’s
IF FOR ANY REASON you cannot reach the appropriate office to make a report,
call 1-800-478-4444. Remember, if a child is in imminent danger and you are
unable to reach the Office of Children’s Services immediately, contact a
local law enforcement agency.
Contact us by Region
cause to suspect” means cause, based on all the facts and circumstances known
to the person, that would lead a reasonable person to believe that something
might be the case.
<< U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, “Child
Abuse and Neglect: Critical First Steps in Response to a National Emergency,”
<< Sexual Assault Center, Harborview Medical Center,
“Sexual Abuse of Children--The Offender,” October 1980.
<< Parents Anonymous, Inc,. “Child Abuse is Scary,”
 Adapted form Jane Ramon, M.S.W.,
“Indicators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 1984.
of British Columbia, “Child Abuse/Neglect Policy Handbook,” 1979.
from Jane Ramon, M.S.W., “Indicators of Child Sexual Abuse,”1984
<*< “It is not the intent of the legislature that persons required to
report suspected child abuse or neglect under this chapter investigate
the suspected child abuse or neglect before they make the required report
to the department.” --Alaska Statutes 47.17.010.
<< Parents Anonymous, Inc., “Child Abuse is Scary,”